A proactive risk taking culture can enhance business performance

A study just published has shown that innovation in a proactive, risk taking organisational culture can enhance business performance.

The roots of business innovation

In the words of the authors “a true entrepreneurial genius is someone who has the capability to experiment with combinations of new process, resources and activities in order to bring about a responsively unique feature.”

For the purpose of this research the authors looked at…

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(Updated April 2018)

Evidence-based leadership refers to the processes and practices of using ‘best evidence’ and ‘hard facts’ about the current situation and what tends to work and what doesn’t, and includes best evidence about how what decisions to make. This means being able to identify and separate facts from half-truths, pet theories, unfounded beliefs and just the just plain wrong that often masquerades as good leadership advice and practice. In this guide I will look at evidence-based leadership, what it is, how to develop and do it, and of course what the latest research evidence is in terms of evidence-based leadership.

This article should be read in conjunction with and is part of The essential guide to evidence-based practice series. As a result this guide will not repeat that guide but rather looks at and focusses on the practice of evidence-based leadership.

NB. Please note this is a living, continually updated document. As a result it changes and is added to frequently as new research and practice-based evidence become available. If there is anything missing or needs correcting please do let us know.


Introduction – the role of the leader

Part of the leaders role is to ensure that decisions and actions taken within the organisation or business are as good as they can be and contribute positively to helping the organisation achieve it’s aims. This includes ensuring the organisation and it’s people are prepared, equipped and resourced so that they can help to move the organisation towards it goal and fulfil its mission(s).


In effect, leaders are there to ensure that the

are as aligned with each other and the aims and mission of the organisation as possible so as to produce as reliable an output as possible.

Additionally it is the leaders responsibility to make sure that decisions and subsequent actions taken across the organisation are based on good sound evidence and rationale.

Leading the way with evidence-based practice

Usually leaders are the individuals who help to establish the culture of EBP in an organisation and, without their effective input, it will be difficult to “set expectations, provide support and demonstrate commitment to an on-going culture of evidence-based practice”.[i] Research has shown that there are specific leader behaviours that will both enhance EBP and facilitate its institutionalisation. These behaviours consist of strategic, functional and cross-cutting approaches. Strategic behaviours mean that a leader has a clear vision, philosophy and provides a governance structure for the development of EBP in the organisation. Strategy here means that the leader will consider how to change the organisational environment over time in a sustainable manner, based on a thorough assessment of the body and any opportunities or barriers to change. This can include making sure that roles include EBP requirements in job descriptions, that the language of EBP is used on a daily basis or that there are good EBP learning resources that are being taken up.[ii]

Functional leadership can involve inspiring and motivating others through mentoring, performance reviews that praise commitments (and also criticise when appropriate) to EBP and fostering a positive can-do culture. Strong practical leadership for EBP can also involve making oneself available and visible to staff, leading and actively taking part in EBP activities and ensuring that individual EBP requests or requirements are fully addressed. A practical hands-on leadership can also be realised by leading introductory courses on EBP within an organisation and through informal methods, such as leading by example. Once EBP has been introduced, it is important that the leader takes an active role in monitoring its progress and getting feedback from others on its efficacy.

Finally, Stetler and others argue that there are certain cross-cutting behaviours which show that strategic and functional approaches often interact. For instance, they refer to the importance of communicating EBP through daily references to an organisation’s vision and strategy. Communication will also be functional in nature through, say, practical discussions and presentations.[iii] Therefore, if EBP is to be properly implemented in an organisation, it must become a normal part of the everyday culture of that organisation. At the leadership level, the behaviours required to enable transformation will take time to cultivate and will have to happen in both a formal and informal sense at every level of leadership.

[i] Janet Houser and Kathleen Oman, Evidence-Based Practice: An Implementation Guide for Healthcare Organizations (J & B Learning International: London), p. 37.

[ii] Cheryl B. Stetler and others, “Leadership for Evidence-Based Practice: Strategic and Functional Behaviours for Institutionalizing EBP”, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4240461/

See also: Houser and Oman, p. 49.

[iii] Stetler and others, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4240461/




If you are in leadership, leadership development, organisational development or consultancy you are going to want to see this…

New research briefing: How to lead and develop an adaptable organisation

This week we sent our members a brand new research briefing about how to lead and develop an adaptable organisation. This briefing summarised an important new research paper that is a true game changer for anyone involved in leadership, organisational development or consultancy. This paper changes the way we think about creating a flexible and adaptable organisation.


Developing and leading an organisation that can lead and respond to a rapidly changing and often ambiguous environment is a primary challenge for leaders these days. This requires leaders who know how to develop and lead an adaptable organisation. A new study by researchers from the United States conducted an integrative literary review (looking at previous research across a number of disciplines and bringing them together) and an analysis of current studies to see what happens and what lessons exist for developing a framework for adaptive leadership.


The first point researchers make is that leadership aimed at developing and leading an adaptable organisation is different from traditional forms of leadership and different from leading change. Adaptive leadership focuses on how to situate an organisation and its people to become adaptive in rapidly changing, dynamic, complex and uncertain environments. The intention of developing flexibility, agility and adaptation capability requires different thinking and skills from those required for day-to-day organisational leadership and even leadership of organisational change, although there are overlaps.


This research study introduces the key idea of the ‘adaptive space’ which is a really useful concept for anyone trying to develop an adaptable organisation or business.


You can obtain this research briefing here

Obedience and loyalty could be your organisations downfall…


Toshiba was at one time one of the giants of Japan’s economy, with net sales of USD $63 billion and over 200,000 employees worldwide. However things were not as they appeared. In 2015 it was discovered that there was USD 4.1 billion of inflated profits over the three fiscal years to 2015, making this one of the biggest corporate scandals in Japanese history.

How did this happen and what role did the corporate and national culture of obedience and loyalty play in it’s downfall?





This research briefing was originally sent out to members in March 2017 as part of their weekly research briefing pack


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A study published last year by Khondaker Rahman and Bremer Marc of the Nanzan University in Japan looks at what went wrong and what the company is doing to rectify the situation. The learning from this case should be of interest in any organisation.




Toshiba as a company can trace its roots back to the 1860s. By 2015 it operated in five main fields:


  1. Energy and Infrastructure,
  2. Healthcare Systems,
  3. Community Solutions,
  4. Electronic Devices
  5. Lifestyle Products and Services.


Toshiba’s business model provided for high profit margins on most of its products and services, making it one of Japan’s stars in business.


The problem – how Toshiba got into trouble


ToshibaIn 2015 it was discovered that a number of formerly profitable businesses had been hiding their poor performance for over seven years. They used a technique to hide their losses that can sometimes be quite legally used called ‘Percentage of Completion’.  The  researchers describe it thus: “sales and expenses are reported in an accounting period based on the progress toward completion by the project in the period…  More specifically under this non-cash flow method, the accounting treatment for contract work in a fiscal year is estimated and the income and cost of the contract for the current accounting period is reported on that basis.”


However, on examination what was a legal and legitimate accounting practice was being used to hide underperformance.


The study found that there was a fiercely competitive internal environment and that senior managers and leaders were continually competing against each other. It was also found that many of these leaders had been bullying their staff into inflating profits to make their areas of the business look better – in one case giving subordinates three days to ‘find’ over USD100 million in the accounts before a reporting period end.


This led to widespread fraud as subordinates feared rebuke for failing to meet targets themselves and a culture of fear as opposed to a culture of productivity and innovationgripped the organisation.


A culture of obedience and loyalty


loyalUnlike many of its western competitors, Japan has an employment culture where those hired after graduation from university can often expect to retire from the same company. Where on the positive side this engenders a culture of good networks within the company and fierce loyalty to the business for which people work, this can go too far. Loyalty and to colleagues and the business (organisational identity) can discourage whistleblowing and encourage collusion in any malpractice – or at the very least strategic silence.


Another factor that led to these failures is that Japan has some of the lowest audit and accountancy fees in the western business world. Accountancy is not a prestige profession as it is in the US or EU. Toshiba in particular paid very low fees to its external auditor, Ernst & Young, and, as with so many other things you pay bottom dollar for, Toshiba received a bottom dollar service. The auditors failed to spot the irregularities even seven years into the fraud.


Redress and recovery


When the story broke investigations and lawsuits took place. The company was fined heavily and Ernst & Young were sacked as well as fined and banned from taking on new business in Japan for several years.

An independent investigation was set up by Toshiba with it making recommendations to restructure the senior management and audit processes…




Essentially the company reduced the Board of Directors from 15 to 11, seven of whom were appointed from outside Toshiba. Following this only outside directors sat on management committees, including the Nomination Committee for the Board. This last act is extremely unusual for Japan as in the eyes of the researchers, “The traditional response to corporate scandal in Japan does not fundamentally change the power structure or culture of the company.”


In addition, Toshiba instituted an annual Vote of Confidence in the President, an anonymous vote among 120 senior management staff where they chose Yes, No, or Unsure. Where 20% or more were said No there would be an investigation to ascertain why and then appropriate measures would be taken.


Finally, the company sold its CMOS sensor division (most loss making) and extensively restructured to ensure future stability and profitability.





The culture of silence, obedience and loyalty in the company led to the situation.

Whether Toshiba’s radical act to safeguard against future scandals works can only be seen in the next years and decades.



Khondaker Mizanur Rahman, Bremer Marc (2017) “Accounting Irregularities at Toshiba: An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Problem and Its Impact on Corporate Governance in Japan” Global Advanced Research Journal of Management and Business Studies (ISSN: 2315-5086) Vol. 5(4) pp. 088-101


Editor's Post-Script

Editors Post-Script

Looking at this study it is apparent this situation arose out of a number of factors:

  1. Over-emphasis on obedience and loyalty as a cultural virtue
  2. Pervasive hierarchical power
  3. Abuse of that power (the bullying)
  4. Lack of transparency as a cultural virtue
  5. Not valuing learning and failure as a conduit for that learning
  6. Acquiescence

It would be a mistake to assume this is a uniquely Japanese issue. These issues are most certainly not confined to the culture in Japan. You just have to look back at the Tesco accounting scandal in the UK and the ongoing investigation to see that such practices can happen in other cultures and for very similar reasons.


New research and a new understanding about culture change in organisations

This Week’s Research Briefings

This week we sent out the following research briefings to our members:

What creates the conditions for open innovation in an organisation

Keywords: open innovation, innovation, external knowledge, knowledge management, collaboration, openness, learning, organisational flexibility, entrepreneurial orientation, technology, reward system, incentives


One of the hot topics at the moment is open innovation. Open innovation really refers to an information age mindset towards innovation.

The idea is to purposefully seek out external knowledge and ideas. The assumption is that organisations can and should leverage external knowledge and not just focus on their own internal knowledge creation and innovation. This research briefing looks at what conditions help to get open innovation going in an organisation and include the five primary capabilities an organisation needs to make open innovation work.

You can download The research briefing: ‘What creates the conditions for open innovation in an organisation’ here


Why introverts rarely emerge as leaders

Keywords: leadership, introvert, extrovert, introversion, extroversion, leadership development, emergent leadership, informal leadership, affective forecasting errors


Emergent, or informal, leaders are people who take on and are accepted as a leader, even though no formal leader has been prescribed. Not only do emerging leaders come across as leader like, they also tend to provide motivation, support, direction and a level of regulation or command that helps the team achieve its goals. Emergent leadership has become a growing area of interest, both within the research and within organisations. Recent studies have found that extroverts are significantly more likely to put themselves forward as leaders than introverts even though a number of studies have found that introverts often make better leaders in a variety of situations.

This research briefing looks at what holds introverts back from leadership roles and has important implications for leadership development

You can download ‘Why introverts rarely emerge as leaders’ here


Why not become a member and get the very latest research briefings sent to you…

Complex problems and flawed individuals

Police the world over are organisations largely dependent on a hierarchical, bureaucratic leadership model. It has been shown that where in some situations a hierarchical system is most effective, even top leadership cannot deal with the most complex problems on their own so a shared leadership model is the best way forward. A new study looking at police leadership shows the way forward, toward a balanced ‘ambidextrous’ leadership profile which focusses on and admits that we are all flawed individuals.




‘The boss knows’ – hierarchical leadership


Traditionally in hierarchical organisations there will be a process where the officers on the ground can make some limited organisational and tactical decisions, deferring to their field management as a situation develops, who then defer to their HQ as the situation becomes complex. Where there is a public order situation, such as widespread rioting, this is a tried and proven solution. Ultimately the senior officer in HQ can deploy resources as a general would deploy forces into battle, whilst the officers on the ground use their batons, shields and other equipment as ordered.


Police leading


This study refers to public order situations as ‘complicated situations’ as opposed a simple situation, both of which suit a hierarchical leadership model which often fails most in a complex situation. The level of complexity is such that simple cause and effect inferences and solutions are not always possible.


Strength is in admitting weakness – flawed individuals


They do say that a sign of strength is in admitting your flaws. The police like many professions aren’t always very good at doing this and allowing themselves to see that they are flawed individuals. Like many professionals their identity is encapsulated in knowing what they are doing and doing it well. When faced with failure there is often denial, rebuttals and a lack of understanding.


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Once someone is in a hierarchy which is dependent on perceptions of competence as an indicator of rank, admitting you don’t know is often problematical for officers.


The researchers found that when, “faced with a complex problem—that is one to which the leader does not have an answer—he or she is faced with a stark choice: reconceptualise the challenge to legitimise his or her preferred leader response (which is typically also the preference of his or her peers, superiors and subordinates); or recognize the limits of their own knowledge and experience and persuade others that they have to be part of the solution.”


Admitting weaknesses


The researchers found that all too often the police leadership ‘reconceptualises the challenge to legitimise his or her preferred leader response’ where instead they should rely on those beneath them to help assess and ultimately make better judgements through ‘shared leadership’.




Police need to become more adept at tackling complex situations. This requires a concept of leadership called ‘ambidexterity’. This is described by the researchers as, “the ability to both ‘run the business’ (through exploiting existing ways of doing things to be increasingly effective and efficient) and ‘change the business’ (through exploring new possibilities and innovations).”


Police parade


For the officers on the ground this could be quite scary as they have to take on more responsibility. For the leaders this is scary too, as they have to give more responsibility to their subordinates. The paper states that for shared leadership to take place, “Exploration and shared leadership thrives in an environment that has:


  1. A low power distance (i.e. an egalitarian ethos)
  2. High psychological safety (i.e. where team members feel comfortable taking interpersonal risks such as challenging assumptions or assertions) and
  3. A strong learning orientation.”


This is not seen by the authors of the paper in the police forces that were the subject of the study in New Zealand and Australia.


The challenge for the organisation to enable ambidexterity in the eyes of the authors is two-fold:


  1. “To create an organisational climate in which both traditional hierarchical and shared approaches to leadership can flourish and
  2. Recognise what sort of organisational challenge they are facing and which sort of leader response therefore is required”



Does it work?


The authors have begun processing a piece of action research that looks at a leadership intervention within the Australian police to highlight the fact that no one person can have all the answers.

While the research has yet to be completed on this intervention the results are promising, with one leader saying in interview about one of their seminars on shared leadership, “It was a bunch of flawed individuals getting together to do extraordinary things with other flawed individuals… One thing I got out of it was that everyone is vulnerable, not perfect. It’s surprising how people are willing to share that. I learnt that we are all human beings.”


In admitting they are ‘flawed individuals’ so the macho ‘I have gold epaulettes – I can tackle anything’ approach is immediately being tackled. Whether this leads to a shared, ambidextrous approach in the police forces in question remains to be seen. However ,there is evidence to suggest that interventions with leaders that get them to connect with their vulnerabilities and recognise that neither they nor their colleagues can be expected to be perfect or know everything. Then showing the leaders how to have a more collaborative approach to complex problems appears to go a long way to developing ambidextrous leadership.


Reference – available to members


Editor’s Post-Script


Other studies (including some of my own) have shown that these are central issues of dealing with not just complexity but the inherent uncertainty and ambiguity of complex situations. Central to this is emotion regulation / resilience, which may explain in part why this intervention is showing promising results.


How to make shared leadership work: The 4 conditions needed – new research

A new paradigm or model of leadership is starting to emerge from the post 2008 financial crash world. Traditional concepts are starting to shift and a new world idea of leadership is just starting to develop. In a new paper, researchers outline what the new leaders paradigm appears to look like.


Traditional leadership


Traditional leadership in companies prior to the financial crisis of 2008 was a world where people entered a company with a view to one day achieving leadership. They may begin as an intern and be spotted at an early stage as having leadership potential, are perhaps fast tracked up the ranks and find themselves in an executive or board level position before they retire.


A new paradigm of leadership

A new paradigm of leadership


This is what is known as the ‘corner office’ concept, something that is becoming quite rare in modern business structures. The world has changed. The new post 2008 world is where one uses one’s self to lead and could end up in a position of leadership from almost any route.


The corner office is a metaphor for the aspirations of generations of leaders where the steps to leadership were well defined and the symbols of leadership, like the corner office, well defined and understood.


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The new leaders paradigm is emerging and is based on what is known as organisation use of self.


Experience, outlook and ‘Use of Self’


David Jamieson, professor and director of the St. Thomas University, defines the ‘Use of Self’ as, “the conscious use of one’s whole being in the intentional execution of one’s role for effectiveness in whatever the current situation is.”


This enables leaders to “model adaptability and mitigate risk through a delicate balance of confidence and humility.”


“model adaptability and mitigate risk through a delicate balance of confidence and humility.”


Thus Organisation Use of Self leaders from the new leaders paradigm recognise and use the vast range of differences in experiences and skills present throughout an organisation, regardless of formal qualifications and hierarchy. People have different skills and experiences according to their circumstances. Journalism is a classic profession where someone may have no formal qualifications at all when they enter the job yet have the experience and skill to do it far better than a graduate, for example schooled in journalism but with little life experience. There are journalism lecturers who grew up in council estates and have no qualifications when they started out, yet had connections with crime gang families that ran their estates, who produce far better investigative journalism than many schooled in journalism.


It is the involvement in and pragmatic use of this informal but very powerful network that separates out the new leaders from those more traditional leaders who are restricted, largely by their own mind-sets, to using the more formal and hierarchical ‘qualified’ resources the system provides.


The idea behind Organisation Use of Self or the organisation use of self is that the new leaders are at their core adaptable, pragmatic and use a mixture of self-confidence to make decisions and act, whilst having the humility to understand they don’t know everything and don’t have all the answers, drawing on experience and expertise from wherever they find it to solve problems and move forward.


Command and control leadership carries too many risks in this day of change and volatility.



Leadership Development: Cultivating leader identity and capacity



The idea of ‘Organisation Use of Self’

The core concept of organisation use of self is that the individual leader uses their whole being, their mind, emotions, intuition, body, everything to move forward. There are three factors in the new leadership paradigm:


The 3 new rules of leadership


The new leaders paradigm appear to have 3 new rules of leadership:

1.    Be on purpose at any moment in time, fully focused and present.

2.    Express what matters. This includes asking questions and sharing thoughts and emotions.

3.    Align ethics. The new leadership is ethical and ethically aligned.


There are two particular strengths the new leaders paradigm bring that develop the level of adaptability and breadth required:


1.    Resilience and

2.    Ego strength


The new leaders are not only emotionally resilient and can bounce back but have core empathy and understanding and can develop resilience and adaptability in others and their organisation.


The new leaders are not only emotionally resilient and can bounce back but have core empathy and understanding


Secondly they have ego strength which means they have confidence in themselves and others, and humility. They can ask without feeling threatened.


In essence the new leaders paradigm is hugely pragmatic and doesn’t comply to formal hierarchical thinking and functioning.


The 6 areas of new organisation use of self leadership


The study found there are six areas of leadership in the new leaders paradigm which develop the above attributes:


1. Communicator. The conversations you have with your colleagues will influence the direction of the organisation. She wrote, “Your conversations should embed meaning that allows you to express what matters, allows ideas to emerge, invites and expects diversity, and energizes everyone.”


The study describes an organisation that in the eyes of the leader has no formal hierarchy and treats all employees equitably (not the same, there is a big difference). They use their strengths to help direct their business. This even comes down to how they are contracted and includes practices such as Colleague Letters of Understanding (CLOUs) that describe the role that they will play for the business that plays to their strengths.


2.    Decision maker. There is no A or B in business any more. It is almost always a balance of paradox. One example is balancing cost and quality. Not every car company builds supercars. How to build a high quality car at a fair price? Change is something we write a lot about in the Oxford Review and making decisions and remaking them in times of change is vital.


3.    Builder. Leaders are building the organisation as well as people around them. One stand out quote Baker gives is that of Vineet Nayar, former CEO of HCL Technologies, an information technology company based in India. She describes his communication practice thus: “He says he learned to communicate in extremes by asking himself, ‘How do I communicate in a way that destroys hierarchy and says I’m one of you?’”

4.    Designer. The new organisation leader designs the physical space around effective leadership. They will often lose that ‘corner office’ themselves and design the physical space around the effective running of the business. Baker wrote, “there are now more opportunities than ever to align the physical environment with your organization culture and to integrate your workspace, work processes, and leadership.”  We see this with Google and Zappos for example.


5.    Giver and taker. The leader who disappears into the office all day and can only be seen through his gatekeepers is a thing of the past. The new leader is as much part of the team they lead as the next person. Max De Pree, former CEO of Herman Miller and son of the founder D. J. De Pree, once said: “The first responsibility of a leader is to define reality. The last responsibility is to say thank you. In between the two, the leader must become a servant and a debtor. That sums up the progress of an artful leader.”


6.    As a model of virtuous character. Power plays and authority through hierarchy is a thing of the past. Being patient, humble and honourable is as key as any of the other characteristics described above.


How you act as a leader is The New Leaders Paradigm


As the researcher herself concludes “How you act as a leader determines how you are perceived by others, and how you are perceived by others determines how much trust, cooperation, and respect you receive. Organization use of self raises the level of your conscious awareness of self-behavior and its impact on others.”




Openness to change

A meta-analysis of 72 research papers just published has thrown up nine points for human resources and development professionals to consider when looking at a shared leadership system. The paper looked at shared leadership at a team level rather than the macro organisational level.

Businesses and other organisations are often fairly risk averse with regards to leadership and the shared model appears more often at lower levels than at upper levels in business as a result. The study,  published in the Journal ‘Advances in Developing Human Resources’ found that there were 9 consistent themes across all the 72 previously published research studies:


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The 9 shared leadership issues


  1. Team working improvements. Shared leadership is an important and useful system that enhances team working. In particular: “improved team performance, effectiveness, innovation and learning”.


  1. It frequently contributes more than a vertical leadership model does. The researchers qualify this by saying that shared leadership can improve team performance through the negotiated and often better and more rounded and thought through outcomes that do not always come from the vertical leadership model.


  1. Responsibilities normally given to the team manager are shared among the team. This it has been found, gives greater ownership and consequently motivation to succeed across the team.


  1. Developing shared leadership takes time. There are broadly two phases to its bedding in – the transition phase, where each team member collectively and individually gets used to the new leadership approach, and the active phase, where the team moves from bedding in to taking action on whatever tasks it has been assigned.


  1. Core skills and attitudes required. The researchers found that shared leadership is more likely to succeed where there is integrity, self-leadership, a collective orientation and a trusting disposition,. Conversely shared leadership can help to develop these traits.


  1. Often good vertical leadership can accelerate the emergence of shared leadership. In much the same way as a hands off manager who trusts their team to do their jobs well is often regarded as a good manager, the transformational and empowering models of leadership were cited as being particularly good for this. Poor leadership however, such as aversive and directive leadership, can hamper shared leadership. It has also been found that lower down, shared leadership can actually enhance the quality of vertical leadership within the organisation.


  1. Those participating in shared leadership need to have a “shared understanding of the team’s purpose, task and situation”.


  1. As well as traditional team and task performance, thinking in terms of social networks and the value they bring is a useful way to provide insights as to how the self-leading team is functioning and performing.


  1. The final point is that the quality of the shared leadership’s impact is influenced by having a supportive environment, task interdependence and also by the complexity of the work the team performs..



The study found that shared leadership does not work in every situation. However, in complex and changing situations, shared leadership should be seriously considered.


Reference – available to members


Leadership Research Briefings


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Keywords: adaptable organisation, complexity, organisational ambidexterity, leadership, entrepreneurial leadership, enabling leadership, operational leadership, uncertainty, conflicting, connecting Developing and leading an organisation that can lead and respond to a rapidly changing…

Why introverts rarely emerge as leaders Keywords: leadership, introvert, extrovert, introversion, extroversion, leadership development, emergent leadership, informal leadership, affective forecasting errors Emergent, or informal, leaders are people who take on…

Keywords: Empowering leadership, Leadership, Self-efficacy, Psychological ownership, Performance, Workplace deviance A growing range of studies have recently shown that empowering leadership has a range of positive outcomes in organisations, such…

Keywords: Leader-member exchange, LMX, Job dedication, Emotional stability, Organisational politics A new study by researchers from three universities in the United States and one in China wanted to have a…

Keywords: Charismatic leadership, charisma, emotion, moral emotion, followers, leader attributes At least in terms of leadership development, the idea of charismatic leadership has waxed and waned over the years and…

Keywords: leadership, leader, leader humour, transformational leadership, relationships, team performance Humour is an essential human attribute that has been found in previous studies to be a factor in perceptions of…

Keywords: Shared leadership, Leadership, Team size, Team performance, Financial performance, Team diversity, Diversity, Strategic performance One of the rapidly growing areas of research and interest in organisations recently has been…

Keywords: Leadership, informal leadership, political will, political skill Informal leadership has been a growing topic of research in recent years, particularly in the light of the growth of more informal…

Keywords: Complexity Leadership Theory, leadership development, leadership, Complex Adaptive Systems, learning, organisational learning, emerging leadership, learning and development A new review of online university graduate leadership courses that are focused…


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In this month’s Oxford Review (sent to members) there are 12 new research briefings: Contents: Barriers to Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) and the role of HR Contextual leadership Culture change…

In Volume 3 Number 1... The downside of employee loyalty Keywords: employee loyalty, job tension, inter-professional dysfunction and collaboration, well-being Employee loyalty is not a one way street. A new…

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In this month's Oxford Review (PDF Download):   Developing evidence-based HR Keywords: human resources, human capital, evidence-based HR, HR analytics, HR digitisation In many organisations…

The dark side of leadership: do negative leadership traits lead to employee depression? Keywords: Leadership, Dark Triad, depression This paper looks at the effects of what is known as the…


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